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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 185-190

Outcome of critically ill hyperglycemic stroke patients admitted to the intensive care unit


1 Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Kamel Abdelaziz Mohamed
Department of Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 7 Manial Museum Street, Cairo
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1110-7782.124979

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Introduction It has been suggested that admission hyperglycemia is a marker of extensive brain damage. Despite these observations, studies that have examined the relationship between glucose levels and the outcome after stroke in diabetic and nondiabetic patients have reported conflicting results. Aim We evaluated data on stroke patients admitted to the intensive care department to estimate the influence of hyperglycemia on the short-term mortality in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Patients and methods A total of 100 consecutive adult patients with stroke admitted to the ICU were studied over a period of 28 months. The patients were followed up for 28 days until discharge from the hospital or until death, whichever occurred first. The patients were divided into three broad groups, on the basis of fasting blood glucose or random sugar and HbA1c to rule out undetected diabetes patients. Results There were no significant differences in the stroke subtype or the baseline stroke severity between diabetic (group 3) and hyperglycemic (group 2) patients. Also, there was no significant association between the stroke severity and the glycosylated hemoglobin level in group 2 and group 3 (r = 0.26, P = 0.4; r = 0.19, P = 0.31; respectively). With regard to an excellent outcome of stroke, which was measured by the modified Rankin scale (0-1), there was no significant difference between group 2 and group 3. The unadjusted risk ratio was 1.85 (95% confidence interval 0.52-4.41) for group 2, whereas it was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.7 6-4.3) in group 3. Nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia had a 1.6 times higher relative risk of in-hospital 28-day mortality than diabetic patients. There were four nonsurvivors (11%) out of 36 patients in the control nondiabetic (group 1), whereas eight (26%) of 31 patients died in group 2, which was statistically significant when compared with group 1 (P = 0.02). However, six nonsurvivors (18%) of 33 in group 3 when compared with group 2 was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Conclusion Our current study showed that nondiabetic patients with hyperglycemia had a 1.6 times higher relative risk of in-hospital 28-day mortality than diabetic patients. Stress hyperglycemia predicts an increased risk of in-hospital mortality after ischemic stroke; thus, we should not underestimate the potential harm, as patients with the highest admission glucose levels would have most likely been treated earlier and more aggressively.


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