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 Table of Contents  
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 47-48

Dengue fever


Department of Tropical Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Date of Submission30-Oct-2017
Date of Acceptance26-Nov-2017
Date of Web Publication20-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nadia A Abdelkader
Department of Tropical Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11556
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ejim.ejim_77_17

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How to cite this article:
Abdelkader NA. Dengue fever. Egypt J Intern Med 2018;30:47-8

How to cite this URL:
Abdelkader NA. Dengue fever. Egypt J Intern Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Apr 20];30:47-8. Available from: http://www.esim.eg.net/text.asp?2018/30/1/47/227971

Dear Sir,

Dengue is the most common and important arthropod-borne viral illness in humans. Globally, 2.5–3 billion individuals live in ∼112 countries. It is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, which are widely distributed in the subtropical and tropical areas of the world. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, with estimates of 40–50% of the world’s population at risk for the disease in the tropical, subtropical, and, most recently, in more temperate areas [1],[2].

The first outbreak of dengue fever in Egypt was reported in 1799, followed by another one in 1871. Notable outbreaks were reported in 1928, 1937 [3],[4].

Recently, in October 2015, an outbreak of dengue fever has been reported in a village in the Dayrout District of Assiut Governorate (http://www.who.int/csr/don/12-november-2015-dengue/en/).

On average, dengue becomes symptomatic after a 4–10-day incubation period. Dengue symptoms usually last for 2–7 days. Individuals with dengue may be asymptomatic. However, many patients with dengue experience a prodrome of chills; rash, including erythematous mottling of the skin; and facial flushing, which may last for 2–3 days. Dengue should be suspected in individuals who present with high fever (104°F/40°C), retro-orbital headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, lymphadenopathy, vomiting, and rash and who have traveled within 2 weeks of symptom onset to an area where appropriate vectors are present [5]. Severe dengue fever may occur; its initial phase is similar to that of dengue fever and other febrile viral illnesses. Shortly after the fever breaks, signs of plasma leakage appear along with the development of hemorrhagic symptoms. The subsequent 24 h frequently prove critical. If left untreated, hemorrhagic fever most likely progresses to shock [6].

Nowadays, Egypt’s Ministry of Health dismissed reports of dengue fever cases in both the Red Sea City of Qusair and in Upper Egypt’s Qena governorate. A total of 101 people are confirmed to suffer from dengue fever in Egypt as was shown by the PCR test results, October 2017 (http://english.ahram.org.eg/News/278071.aspx).

In response to the outbreak, the Ministry of Public Health has developed a case definition of the disease. A training workshop was conducted for all healthcare workers to enhance their capacity for the early detection and prompt management of cases.

There is no vaccine available against dengue, and there are no specific medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step. The best way to reduce mosquitoes is to eliminate the places where the mosquito lays her eggs, like artificial containers that hold water in and around the home and outdoors, clean water containers like pet and animal watering containers, flower planter dishes or cover water storage barrels. Look for standing water indoors such as in vases with fresh flowers and clean at least once a week. To protect yourself, use repellent on your skin while indoors or outdoors. When possible, wear long sleeves and pants for additional protection. Also, make sure window and door screens are secure and without holes. If available, use air-conditioning (https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/prevention/index.html).

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Farlow AW, Moyes CL et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013; 496:504–507.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wilson ME, Chen LH. Dengue: update on epidemiology. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2015; 1:457.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Berger SA. Infectious diseases of Egypt. Gideon Informatics Inc.; 2010. GIDEON: Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network www.gideononline.com. p. 367. ISBN 9781498813433.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Berger SA. Dengue: global status. Gideon Informatics Inc.; 2010. GIDEON: Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network www.gideononline.com. p. 191. ISBN 9781498813433.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kyle JL, Harris E. Global spread and persistence of dengue. Annu Rev Microbiol 2008; 62:71–92.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Statler J, Mammen M, Lyons A, Sun W. Sonographic findings of healthy volunteers infected with dengue virus. J Clin Ultrasound 2008; 36:413–417.  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

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