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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 171-177

Risk factors of hematological malignancies in Upper Egypt: a case–control study

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Hematology Unit, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
2 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Rania Hafez
Clinical Hematology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71516
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ejim.ejim_81_18

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Background The definite etiologies of hematological malignancies (HMs) are still unknown. Objective The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of HMs and its subtypes as well as to determine their risk factors in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. Patients and methods This case–control study included 1137 patients diagnosed with different HMs (leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma) and normal healthy controls from January 2014 to December 2017. Data were collected using interviewed administered questionnaire, and clinical and biochemical assessment. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors of HMs and their subtypes. Results Leukemia was the most common presented HM (75%), nearly half of leukemic cases were acute myeloid leukemia, while non-Hodgkin’s represented the majority of patients with lymphoma. Increasing age and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with all HMs. Except for multiple myeloma, hepatitis C virus and obesity had significantly higher odds ratio for HMs and their subtypes. Exposure to agricultural chemicals was a risk factor for lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes while exposure to electromagnetic field was a significant risk factor for leukemia. Conclusion and recommendations This is the first study evaluating the different risk factors and distribution of HMs in Upper Egypt. Studies with a more detailed evaluation of the role of the possible risk factors in the occurrence of blood cancers in Egypt are recommended.

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