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  Most popular articles (Since January 27, 2014)

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Primary bile reflux gastritis versus Helicobacter pylori gastritis: a comparative study
Enaase A.M.E Barakat, Neven F Abbas, Nashwa Y El-Kholi
January-March 2018, 30(1):23-27
Background Bile reflux gastritis (BRG) is a common disorder, with few data on its pathophysiology and clinical course, whereas Helicobacter pylori is the well-known, commonest cause of chronic gastritis. Aim The aim of this study was to compare between BRG and H. pylori-related gastritis, as regards demographic data, comorbid conditions, and pattern of upper gastrointestinal involvement. Patients and methods It included 130 patients with endoscopic features of gastritis, subdivided into three groups: group A with BRG (56 patients); group B with H. pylori gastritis (58 patients); group C with gastritis in the presence of both H. pylori and bile reflux (16 patients). Statistical analysis was made to compare between the three groups as regards demographic data, history, and examination findings including endoscopic findings. Results BRG is more common among younger age (21–30 years) and elderly patients (71–80 years), whereas H. pylori gastritis is more common in patients in the middle age group (31–60 years), the female/male ratio was 1.5 : 1 in patients with BRG, 1 : 1 in H. pylori gastritis. Nausea was the commonest symptom in patients with BRG (69.6%), whereas epigastric pain/discomfort was the commonest symptom (77.6%) in H. pylori gastritis. Diabetes was found to be more common in patients with H. pylori gastritis (29.3%) followed by BRG (26.8%), whereas obesity was more common in patients with BRG (76.8%) followed by H. pylori gastritis (65.5%). Endoscopy showed antral gastritis in cases with BRG (57.1%), pangastritis in H. pylori and mixed etiology gastritis (60.3 and 68.8%, respectively), reflux esophagitis in both BRG and H. pylori gastritis (41.1 and 44.8%, respectively), higher than mixed etiology gastritis (25%). Endoscopic Barrett’s mucosa was diagnosed in 10.7% of cases with BRG and 12.1% of cases with H. pylori gastritis. Duodenitis, duodenal erosions, or ulcerations were more common in cases with mixed etiology gastritis (62.5%), than in H. pylori gastritis (24.1%), followed by BRG (14.3%). Conclusion BRG is a common, underdiagnosed condition, with distinct clinical and endoscopic features from H. pylori gastritis.
  18,273 429 1
Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?
Yatendra Singh, Subhash C Joshi, Vivekanand Satyawali, Abhisek Gupta
July-September 2014, 26(3):99-103
Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.
  14,632 894 5
Food allergy ( the invisible hoe)
Fardous Soliman
March 2013, 25(1):1-9
  8,702 580 -
The secret of neuroscience boom: Are there secret human experiments in Latin América?
David Salinas Flores
January-March 2016, 28(1):1-4
About 6 years ago there sparked a phenomenon in science called the neuroscientific boom. Neurologists underpin this phenomenon to cost reduction techniques such as electroencephalograms and to improved noninvasive technology such as functional MRI. But the human brain, the most complex organ in the universe, has not yet been fully investigated with the existing noninvasive technologies. Thus, there is a suspicion that the real reason for this boom is a secret, forced, and illicit human experimentation in Latin America. Physicians should investigate, be alert, and report these potential unethical human experiments to prevent any further damage to the public health of the citizens of Latin societies.
  8,332 471 2
The management of constipation-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome)
Amal F Radwan, Nagwa R Ahmed, Eman A Sultan
October-December 2015, 27(4):127-132
The terminology constipation-related functional gastrointestinal disorders was applied to embrace two conditions - constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic constipation - because of the similarity in the etiology between the two conditions. The cardinal symptoms of IBS-C are abdominal pain or discomfort associated with constipation. The current symptom-based Rome III criteria are used to confirm the diagnosis. Many patients with IBS-C initially treat their symptoms with lifestyle modifications and exclusion diets, together with treatment of symptoms such as constipation by using fiber supplements, over-the-counter laxatives, or probiotics. Less commonly, the patients may also undergo various forms of psychotherapy. Despite these therapeutic modalities, many IBS patients are disappointed with their symptomatic response. There are several drugs that are being proposed for its treatment in the future, one of which is linaclotide, a 14-amino acid synthetic peptide that improves stool frequency and consistency and intestinal transit. Four-week treatment with Bifidobacterium lactis showed superior results when compared with placebo in decreasing the abdominal distention and improving orocecal and colonic transit.
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Sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty
Ajay Kumar Gupta, Siddhartha Mishra
October-December 2016, 28(4):133-139
Sarcopenia is the process of loss of body mass, specifically the musculoskeletal tissue, with age, which ultimately leads to a syndrome of clinical entity poorly defined as frailty. It is probably as old as humanity itself. Functionally, frailty is described as a syndrome characterized by a progressive decrease in the body's reserve and declining resistance to stressors, possibly because of declining capacity of multiple physiologic systems resulting in higher vulnerability morbidity and mortality. Ayurveda also mentions morbidity occurring with advancing age and various options for its management. Elixirs are recommended in Ayurveda, popularly called ‘rasayana’, for recovery from the symptoms of frailty. Worldwide, because of the wide demographic profile, the process of ageing exerts its effects on geriatric populations at different ages. Europeans were the first to paraphrase the word frailty for the ageing process. With better medical care and nutrition, a substantial subset of populations survives longer than 60 years or longer worldwide. The most relevant aspect of the recognition of syndrome of frailty is that the process is, to some extent, reversible, provided that adequate attention is paid and a timely intervention is performed for the needy subset of population, which is likely to improve the quality of life markedly, besides resulting in an increased life span.
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Thyroxine mimetics
Randa F Salam
October-December 2013, 25(4):171-176
Thyroid hormones influence heart rate, serum lipids, metabolic rate, body weight, and multiple aspects of lipid, carbohydrate, protein, and mineral metabolism. Although increased thyroid hormone levels can improve serum lipid profiles and reduce fat, these positive effects are counterbalanced by the harmful effects on the heart, muscle, and bone. Thus, attempts to use thyroid hormones for cholesterol-lowering and weight loss purposes have so far been limited. However, over the past decade, thyroid hormone analogs that are capable of uncoupling the beneficial effects from the deleterious effects have been developed. Such drugs could serve as powerful new tools to address two of the largest medical problems, namely atherosclerosis and obesity. Aggressive reduction in LDL-cholesterol by the use of statins is a cornerstone of preventive cardiovascular risk, but additional therapies to prevent atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae are still needed. Thyromimetics selective for the liver or the thyroid hormone receptor isoform β1 constitute a novel approach to treat dyslipidemia. In preclinical studies, selective thyromimetics were clearly shown to reduce plasma cholesterol and protect from atherosclerosis through the upregulation of hepatic LDL receptor and promotion of the so-called reverse cholesterol transport. Notably, there is the first evidence from on-going clinical trials that selective thyromimetics may reduce plasma cholesterol in humans also. Most importantly, thyromimetics has a synergistic action when used in combination with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors. Animal data have further suggested that thyromimetics might be useful in the treatment of obesity, hepatic steatosis, and atherosclerosis.
  3,044 3,779 -
Liver transplantation for nontransplant physicians
Amany AbdelMaqsod Sholkamy
October-December 2014, 26(4):139-144
Many of the nontransplant physicians who manage hepatic patients (internists and hepatologists) keep asking about liver transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight important topics a nontransplant colleague may require in his practice. There are many topics in this respect; however, three most important topics need to be highlighted; those are; the time of referral to transplantation, the indications and contraindications and the metabolic issues regarding a transplanted patient. Still, there are no clear guidelines for the management of many of the metabolic issues regarding liver transplanted patients. And this why, collaborative efforts of transplant and nontransplant physicians are needed to conduct multicenter, long term randomized controlled trials and proper follow up programs.
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The impact of obesity on walking and physical performance
Manal K Youssef
April-June 2014, 26(2):40-44
Background Obesity-induced limitations of the cardiopulmonary and the metabolic systems, resulting in exertional dyspnea, contribute to the limitations in the functional capacity frequently observed in obese individuals. In addition, the sedentary lifestyle often adopted by these individuals further compounds and contributes to impaired exercise tolerance. Aim of the study The current study was conducted to detect the effect of lifestyle modification in the form of weight reduction by diet and aerobic exercise on walking and physical performance. Patients and methods Twenty obese participants were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 25 to 43 years. All participants were evaluated before the first session of physical therapy program and at the end of the program after 2 months of exercise and a low-caloric diet of 25 kcal/kg actual weight/day through physical evaluation, which included anthropometric measurements, BMI, inspiratory capacity, and a physical performance test, which includes four tests (15-m rapid walking test, a timed up-and-go test, and stair climbing and stair descending tests). Results Analysis of data revealed significant improvement in the parameters assessed as follows: weight decreased from 81.3 ± 8.5 to 68.00 ± 4.50 kg (P ≤ 0.001); BMI decreased from 29.8 ± 2.0 to 24.1 ± 2.0 kg/m 2 (P ≤ 0.001); waist circumference decreased from 120.3 ± 14.4 to 112.3 ± 9.6 cm (P = 0.053); hip circumference decreased from 121.3 ± 6.1 to 112.6 ± 11.4 cm (P = 0.009); inspiratory capacity increased from 14.4 ± 2.7 to 21.0 ± 2.3 s (P ≤ 0.001); time of 15 m walk decreased from 21.2 ± 1.7 to 15.5 ± 2.1 s; timed up-and-go test decreased from 24.1 ± 2.8 to 15.3 ± 2.3 s; stair climbing time decreased from 45.3 ± 6.5 to 34.2 ± 2.6 s; stair descending time decreased from 36.2 ± 2.3 to 27.2 ± 2.1 s. Hence, the total physical performance increased from 31.9 ± 10.3 to 23.0 ± 8.5 s (P ≤ 0.001) and consequently improved the quality of life. Conclusion Lifestyle modification in the form of a low-caloric diet accompanied by exercise has a positive effect on physical performance and consequently on the quality of life.
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Spontaneous lung pneumatocele in an adult with community-acquired pneumonia
Jyoti Bajpai, Surya Kant, Ajay Kumar Verma, Darshan Kumar Bajaj
July-September 2017, 29(3):141-143
Pulmonary pneumatoceles are thin-walled, air-filled cystic lesions occurring in lung parenchyma. They occur as a sequelae to bacterial infections of the lung, especially bronchopneumonia. They are commonly seen in infants and children. In this article, we report a rare case of pneumatoceles in a 40-year-old adult following staphylococcal community-acquired pneumonia.
  5,657 281 -
MCQ Questions and answers

September 2013, 25(3):164-0
  2,454 3,313 -
Effect of vitamin D3 in treating hyperthyroidism in patients with graves’ disease
Nermin A Sheriba, Abeer A.A. Elewa, Maram M Mahdy, Ahmed M Bahaa El Din, Nesma A Ibrahim, Dina A Marawan, Tahany M Abd El Moneim
April-June 2017, 29(2):64-70
Background Graves’ disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism secondary to circulating autoantibodies. Multiple factors contributed to its etiology, including genetic and environmental factors. The role of vitamin D is well-known in calcium metabolism and skeletal homeostasis. Vitamin D was shown to be a modulator in both innate and adaptive immunity. There is a link between vitamin D deficiency and various autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was reported to be common in patients with GD. Interestingly, vitamin D deficiency is found to be associated with higher thyroid volume in patients with newly-onset GD. However, vitamin D deficiency relationship with GD remains a controversial issue. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in GD with and without ophthalmopathy. Patients and methods A randomized prospective study was conducted on 60 adult patients with GD aged 20–40 years. Group 1 comprised 20 patients with GD receiving a daily dose of 30 mg of methimazole alone. Group 2 comprised 40 patients with GD receiving the same dose of methimazole, supplemented with intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 200 000 IU/month for 3 months. Patients were followed up over a 3-month duration. Results There was hypovitaminosis D in all participants with a percentage of vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D level: <20 ng/ml) of 73.9% in male and 54.1% in female and a vitamin D insufficiency (vitamin D level: 20–29 ng/ml) of 26.1% in male and 45.9% in female. Vitamin D was significantly correlated with thyroid volume and degree of exophthalmos. On vitamin D supplementation, group 2 had significantly lower thyroid volume and better effect on the degree of exophthalmos. Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation for GD has a favorable effect on thyroid volume and on the degree of exophthalmos.
  5,154 297 2
An assurance letter to the pilgrims ( novel coronavirus 2012)
Amal F Radwan
December 2012, 24(3):59-60
  1,337 3,993 -
Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
Naglaa A El-Gendy, Naglaa A Tawfeek, Rayyh A Saleh, Enas E Radwan, Eman E Ahmad, Rehab A Mohammed
April-June 2014, 26(2):53-59
Background Spontaneous infection of ascites is a severe complication of ascites and must be actively searched for. Many studies have been carried out on inflammatory markers and their levels in serum and ascitic fluid such as complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin, and have identified their role in the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). The aim of our study was to measure and compare the serum and ascitic fluid levels of procalcitonin, high-sensitive CRP, C3, and C4 in patients with SBP and patients without SBP. Patients and methods This case-control study was carried out on 10 patients with cirrhotic ascites who were admitted with SBP and 20 patients with cirrhotic ascites with no existing evidence of SBP. Serum and ascitic fluid levels of C3, C4, high-sensitive CRP, and procalcitonin were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results The mean ± SD of the serum levels of C3, C4, high-sensitive CRP, and procalcitonin were 3.38 ± 2.12, 0.36 ± 0.25, 18.76 ± 6.37, and 136.79 ± 58.14, respectively, in group I, whereas their levels in group II were 2.04 ± 1.98, 0.36 ± 0.29, 16.80 ± 5.97, and 147.78 ± 58.65, respectively. The mean ± SD of their ascitic fluid levels were 0.21 ± 0.14, 1.84 ± 1.69, 1.96 ± 1.15, and 162.43 ± 82.51, whereas their levels in group II were 0.46 ± 1.01, 2.07 ± 1.93, 2.98 ± 5.90, and 180.51 ± 93.70, respectively. Surprisingly, all these results were statistically insignificant. However, an ascetic fluid polymorph nuclear leukocyte count higher than 200/mm 3 has sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100% in the diagnosis of SBP. Conclusion An ascitic polymorph nuclear leukocyte count higher than 200/ml was the accurate marker for the diagnosis of SBP.
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The impact of large-volume paracentesis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhotic patients with ascites
Tary Abdel-Hamid Salman, Hassan EL-Sayed Zaghla, Khaled Mohammad Attallah, Omkolthoum Mohammad El-Haddad, Enas Mohammad Korayem, Ashraf Abbass Basuni, Hossam El-Din Mahmoud El-Ezzawy
October-December 2014, 26(4):170-175
Background and aim Ascites in liver cirrhosis is associated with a poor prognosis and impairment of the quality of life and may be complicated by hepatorenal syndrome. Renal functions and haemodynamic changes after large-volume paracentesis (LVP) in cirrhotic patients with tense ascites were evaluated. Patients and methods A total of 50 cirrhotic patients with tense ascites were divided into two groups: group I 25 patients without renal impairment and group II 25 patients with renal impairment (type II hepatorenal syndrome). Results In groups I and II, the serum creatinine decreased significantly 24 h after LVP (P < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). The glomerular filtration rate and the urine output increased significantly 24 h after LVP (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively, in groups I and II). The renal artery resistive index (RI) was significantly higher in group II compared with group I (P < 0.01). LVP caused a significant increase in the cardiac output, the stroke volume and the cardiac index (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in the RI in both groups (P < 0.01). There was significant correlation between serum and ascetic fluid electrolyte levels in all patients. Conclusion LVP causes a significant reduction of heart rate and mean arterial pressure, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and RI with a significant glomerular filtration rate increase, but had no effect on the plasma renin activity.
  4,652 332 -
Liver ultrasound scanning in the detection of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in NASH patients
Mona Hegazy, Abeer Mostafa
August 2012, 24(2):27-31

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent cause of liver disease in western countries. The development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis identifies the risk group with an increased incidence of liver-related deaths.


The aim of the present study is to investigate how accurately liver ultrasound (US) can contribute toward the prediction of the severity of liver damage in NAFLD, and to determine whether it may be an easily available, inexpensive, noninterventional, widely used screening method.


Fifty-four obese patients with variable degrees of BMI were recruited in the present study. Assessment of full medical history, anthropometric measurements, biochemical studies, abdominal US, liver biopsy for histological examination, and determination of the NAFLD activity score (NAS) score were carried out on all patients to identify NASH patients . Liver steatosis was evaluated using liver US, and graded according to a semiquantitative scale from 1 to 4. Liver histological examination was carried out to identify patients with NASH, borderline NASH, or non-NASH according to the NAS score.


According to the NAS score, patients were divided into non-NASH patients (eight patients), borderline NASH patients (24 patients), NASH patients (20 patients), and patients with NASH and fibrosis (two patients). Alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly higher in NASH patients. Correlating the grading of hepatic steatosis by liver US and NAS score, grade 1 was found in 37.5% of patients with non-NASH, 33.3% of patients with borderline NASH, and only in 5% of patients with NASH, whereas grade 4 steatosis was found in 20% of NASH patients and 4.2% of patients with borderline NASH; none of the non-NASH patients were diagnosed with grade 4 hepatic steatosis. The sensitivity of liver US in detecting grades of steatosis in liver biopsy was 61% in grade 1, 25% in grade 2, and 75% in grade 3. There was a direct correlation between grading of steatosis in the histological examination and the presence of NASH, P less than 0.000.


Liver US is not only sensitive in the detection of hepatic steatosis, but also in the prediction of the presence of NASH; therefore, it can be used as a simple, noninvasive, low-cost method for the screening of NAFLD and for the early identification of patients in need of aggressive intervention.

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Some risk factors of gallstone formation after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and the role of ezetimibe versus ursodeoxycholic acid in its prevention
Alaa Elgamal, Ahmad Tarek Fawzy
April-June 2014, 26(2):75-79
Aims Obese patients are at increased risk for gallstones during rapid weight loss and after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ursodeoxycholic acid and ezetimibe for prevention of gallstone formation after sleeve gastrectomy and to identify some risk factors. Settings and design This was a prospective randomized study conducted at Al Rashid Hospital, Kuwait. Patients and methods A total of 215 obese patients were included. Preoperative assessment was performed, including history, examination, obesity evaluation (body weight, BMI, waist circumference), full laboratory work, gastroscopy, and abdominal ultrasonography. After laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, patients were divided randomly into: group 1 (control), group 2 (ursodeoxycholic acid), and group 3 (ezetimibe). Patients were scheduled for 3-, 6-, and 12-month visits for assessment of % excess weight loss and abdominal ultrasonography. Results A significant reduction in gallstone formation was found in the ezetimibe group (5.5%) compared with the control group (17.6%). A statistically significant increase in % excess weight loss was observed in patients with gallstones (38.5%) versus patients without gallstones (28.2%). Percentage of gallstone formation during first 6 months postoperatively was double that during the next 6 months in both the control and treatment groups. Conclusion Risk of gallstone formation during the first 6 months after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was double that during the second 6 months. Ezetimibe is effective in reducing relative risk by 70% and ursodeoxycholic acid by 50% versus control; hence, we recommend usage of one of these medications for 1 year postoperatively. Furthermore, we recommend more work on combining both medications together.
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Irrational proton pump inhibitor use during corticosteroid therapy
Rakesh Agarwal, Rashmi Baid
July-September 2018, 30(3):173-174
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Celiac disease
Dina I Shehab
June 2013, 25(2):53-62
Purpose of review

The aim of this review was to summarize recent advances in celiac disease (CD) published between 2006 and 2012.

Recent findings

CD affects ∼1% of most populations but remains largely unrecognized. During the past year, research has shown that the prevalence of CD has increased dramatically and not merely because of increased detection. Moreover, undiagnosed CD may be associated with increased mortality. Significant progress has been made in understanding how gliadin peptides can cross the intestinal border and access the immune system. New deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies have better diagnostic accuracy over other tests. The inclusion of duodenal bulb biopsy specimens may increase the rate of CD detection. Finally, refractory CD, although rare, is associated with a poor prognosis. The use of novel highly efficient exogenous prolyl endoproteases enzymes may help patients deal with occasional lapses in their diet or may protect highly sensitive individuals from inadvertent presence of gluten in food products. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this approach still needs precise assessment.


Mortality rates among patients with untreated CD increase two-fold every year as they age (gastrointestinal malignancies) and most can be prevented/reversed with early diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet. CD is a global health problem that requires a multidisciplinary and increasingly cooperative multinational research effort.

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CD4 cell counts, complete blood picture and lipid profile in HIV infected and AIDS patients in a specific populace from South India
MVR Ratnam, Abhishek S Nayyar, B Kalivara Prasad, SVN Sashikiran, G Upendra, Debasis Sahu
October-December 2017, 29(4):151-163
Context AIDS is caused by a retrovirus known as HIV which breaks down the body’s immune system leaving the patient vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders, or unusual malignancies. According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, 35 million people were living with HIV globally at the end of the year 2013. The first AIDS case in India was detected in the year 1986. Seldom studies have been conducted correlating these parameters in the Indian population. Aim The present study was carried out to evaluate the CD4 cell counts, complete blood picture, and lipid profile in HIV-infected patients and those with AIDS and correlate these parameters with those obtained in the sero-negative controls. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study. The included participants were divided into three groups: group A consisted of 500 patients who were without any systemic illness as healthy controls, group B consisted of 500 patients who were diagnosed as having HIV infection, and group C consisted of 500 patients diagnosed as having AIDS depending on their CD4 cell counts. Permission from the Ethical Committee of the Institution as well as Superintendent of Government Hospital was taken to conduct the study. Evaluation of CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV infection and AIDS was done using CyFlow counter, whereas complete blood picture, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, red blood cell and white blood cells (WBCs) and platelet counts, were analyzed using Sysmex XP 100, a compact, fully automated analyzer. Lipid profile was evaluated using an automated analyzer, Erba EM 360 powered by a diffraction grating photometer. Results The results were found to be statistically significant, with the P-value being less than 0.001, for the CD4 cell counts, Hb, WBCs, and platelet counts. The levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) were significantly decreased whereas triglycerides and very LDLs were significantly increased in patients with AIDS when compared with the control group and patients with HIV infection. Conclusion CD4 cell counts, Hb, WBCs and platelet counts as well as total cholesterol, LDLs, triglycerides and very LDLs were significantly altered in patients with HIV infection and those with AIDS when compared with the controls.
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Ascitic calprotectin as a diagnostic marker for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in hepatitis C virus cirrhotic Egyptian patients
Ahmed A Heikl, Mahmoud M El-Nokeety, Eman Roshdy, Abeer Mohey
January-March 2018, 30(1):1-7
Background The gold standard for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) count of 250/mm3or more. Accurate and early diagnosis of SBP is important to decrease the mortality and complications in patients with cirrhosis. Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ascitic fluid calprotectin as a diagnostic marker for the detection of SBP. Patients and methods Seventy Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were enrolled; these patients were divided into two groups: 50 patients with SBP and 20 patients with no SBP on the basis of an elevated ascitic PMNL count of 250 cells/mm3 or more. Ascitic samples were examined for PMNL count, culture, chemistry, and calprotectin concentrations in all patients. Results Calprotectin levels in ascitic fluid were correlated significantly with PMNLs and significantly higher in patients with SBP than non-SBP (P<0.001), with the best cutoff value for the detection of SBP of 783 ng/ml with a sensitivity, a specificity, a positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and an accuracy of 90, 100, 100, 80, and 92.9%, respectively. Conclusion Elevated ascitic calprotectin levels in cirrhotic patients are a diagnostic and reliable marker for the detection of SBP and considered a surrogate marker for PMNL.
  3,817 362 -
Nicotinic acid: a lipid-lowering agent with unrealized potential
Samar H. Aboulsoud
January-March 2014, 26(1):1-5
Nicotinic acid is a well-known treatment for dyslipidemia in adults. This review article explored not only the role of nicotinic acid in dyslipidemia but also its role in hypertension and as a cardioprotective agent. Adverse effects in association with nicotinic acid use are described with a focus on flushing, the major reason for the discontinuation of nicotinic acid therapy. The role of nicotinic acid receptor in mediating its metabolic and vascular effects is also reviewed.
  3,842 334 -
Seminal parameters before and during combined antiviral (pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin) treatment in chronic hepatitis C virus patients in upper Egypt
Hussein M Ghanem, Nashaat N Ismaeel, Alaa F Haseeb, Waleed M Nabawy, Mohamed Rehan, Hala Shreen
July-September 2014, 26(3):104-109
Background Some reports suggest that chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and its combined antiviral therapy could alter seminal parameters, and so chronic HCV infection may influence male fertility. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate seminal parameters before and during combined antiviral (pegylated interferon α-2a+ribavirin) treatment in chronic HCV patients. Because of the possible teratogenic effect of ribavirin, contraception is mandatory during therapy. This study was conducted on 40 male chronic HCV patients (PCR based), age 20-58 years: 30 patients were given combined therapy (group 1) and 10 were not given treatment (group 2); 10 normal controls were included (group 3). The seminal fluid (volume, concentration, motility, and morphology) was analyzed. Parameters were determined at the beginning, and in group 1, they were reassessed after 12 weeks of therapy. Results Semen abnormalities were common at baseline with further impairment during antiviral therapy in group 1: oligoasthenoteratozoospermia was detected in 15 patients, asthenozoospermia in six, and athenoteratozoospermia in six (sperm density: BL, 59.2 ± 40.7 × 106/ml; week 12, 26.7 ± 22.4 × 106/ml; progressive motility: BL, 44.5 ± 15.2%; week 12, 31.2 ± 12.5%). The proportion of sperm without motility reached its peak after 12 weeks of therapy. The percentage of abnormal forms was BL 14 ± 0.04% and week 12 16.8 ± 5.2%, with further increase during therapy. In group 2, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia was present in three patients, asthenozoospermia in three, and athenoteratozoospermia in two. The density was 46.7 ± 32.4 × 106/ml, and the progressive motility 40 ± 10.7%. The percentage of abnormal forms was 13.5 ± 1.6%. In group 3, there was no oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, one patient had asthenozoospermia, and one had athenoteratozoospermia. The density was 95.2 ± 28.7 × 106/ml, and the progressive motility 57.2 ± 18.2%. The percentage of abnormal forms was 9.5 ± 2.8%. Conclusion Semen abnormalities were common in chronic HCV patients, with further impairment during combined antiviral therapy.
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Association of serum ferritin with insulin resistance in offsprings of type 2 diabetics
Usama A Khalil, Fayroz O Seliem, Alsayed Alnahal, Mohamed Awad, Ayman M.E.M Sadek, Mohamed S Fawzy
January-March 2018, 30(1):13-17
Context Type 2 diabetes is prevalent worldwide, and insulin resistance (IR) is considered the main player in its pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested a link between iron and IR. Aim The aim was to study serum ferritin level in nondiabetic offsprings, with and without impaired glucose tolerance, of diabetic patients and its relation to IR. Settings and design This is a cross-sectional case–control study carried out in the Internal Medicine Department, Zagazig University Hospitals. Patients and methods A total of 25 completely healthy individuals as a control group and 50 offsprings of patients with type 2 diabetes as a case group were included in the study. The case group was further divided into normal and impaired glucose tolerant offspring subgroups after glucose tolerance test. All of them underwent thorough clinical examination; routine laboratory investigation including complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, serum ferritin, and fasting insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; calculation of BMI; and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Statistical package for the social sciences for windows (version 16) was used for statistical analysis. Results Significant increase in mean±SD of serum ferritin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in impaired glucose tolerant offspring subgroup was observed as compared with both control group and normal glucose tolerant offspring subgroup. Significant positive correlation was found between serum ferritin versus each of BMI, fasting insulin, fasting, postprandial blood glucose, and HOMA-IR in impaired glucose tolerant offspring subgroup. Conclusion Elevated serum ferritin levels in nondiabetic offsprings with impaired glucose tolerance may play a role in the pathogenesis of IR state, which may progress to type 2 diabetes.
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Small cell carcinoma lung presented as both Pancoast and superior vena cava syndrome: a case report
Rajdeep Basu, Sukalpa Chaudhuri, Soumitra Ghosh
January-March 2018, 30(1):43-46
Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome occurs because of SVC obstruction by mediastinal mass, with features of venous stasis and Pancoast syndrome manifested by tumour of the lung apex with features of invasion to adjacent bones, soft tissues and the nervous system. Small cell carcinoma lung is commonly found to cause SVC syndrome, Pancoast is a rare association. Only a few cases have been reported so far. In this report, we focus on a 45-year-old male patient who presented with both Pancoast and SVC syndrome because of small cell carcinoma of the lung.
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